Five Kingdom Classification System /5 Kingdom Classification Notes

5 Kingdom Classification

In this topic we discuss about the Five Kingdom Classification System.The arrangement of collecting organism into groups or sub group on the  based on similarities and changes is called classification. It provide us an easy way to  investigation of many types of organism or their life forms in an extremely simple way.

R.H. Whittaker proposed the 5 kingdom characterization in 1969. This characterization depended on specific characters like method of  taking or prepared food (nourishment)  cell structure, phylogenetic connections and reproduction method or  multiplication. This type of classification  arrangement incorporates 5 kingdom  Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

The 5 kingdom characterization that we see today was not the underlying consequence of the arrangement of living life forms. Carolus Linnaeus originally thought of a two realm order which included just realm Plantae and realm Animalia.

The two realm grouping went on for an exceptionally prolonged stretch of time however didn’t keep going forever in light of the fact that it didn’t consider many significant parameters while arranging. There was no separation of the eukaryotes and prokaryotes; neither unicellular and multicellular; nor photosynthetic and the non-photosynthetic.

Placing all the creatures in either plant or set of all animals was lacking on the grounds that there were a ton of living beings which couldn’t be named either plants or creatures.

Every one of these disarrays prompted another method of arrangement which needed to consider cell structure, the nearness of cell divider, method of propagation and method of sustenance. Subsequently, R H Whittaker thought of the idea of 5 realm characterization.

The 5 kingdom characterization of living organism incorporated the accompanying realms:

5 Kingdom Classification System

Kingdom Monera

The microbes bacteria etc. are included  the Kingdom Monera.

Feature of kingdom Monera 

  •  Bacteria are present all over the place and they are infinitesimal in nature.
  • They have a cell divider and are prokaryotic.
  • The cell divider is framed of amino acids and polysaccharides.
  • Bacteria can be heterotrophic and autotrophic.
  • The heterotrophic microscopic organisms can be parasitic or saprophytic.
  • The autotrophic microbes can be chemosynthetic or photosynthetic.

Types of Monerans

Bacteria can be classified into four types based on their shape:

  • Coccus (pl.: cocci)- These bacteria are spherical in shape.
  • Bacillus (pl.: bacilli) – These bacteria are rod-shaped,
  • Vibrium (pl.: vibrio) – These bacteria are comma-shaped bacteria
  • Spirillum (pl.: spirilla)- These bacteria are spiral-shaped bacteria

Monera has since been divided into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.

Kingdom Protista

character of Protista

Protista has the accompanying significant highlights:

  • They are unicellular and eukaryotic living beings.
  • Some of them have cilia or flagella for mobility.
  • Sexual proliferation is by a procedure of cell combination and zygote arrangement.

Sub-groups of Protista

Kingdom Protista is categorized into subsequent groups:

  • Chrysophytes: The golden algae (desmids) and diatoms fall under this group. They are found in marine and freshwater habitats.
  • Dinoflagellates: They are usually photosynthetic and marine. The colour they appear is dependent on the key pigments in their cells; they appear red, blue, brown,  green or yellow.
  • Euglenoids: Most of them live in freshwater habitation in motionless water. The cell wall is absent in them, instead, there is a protein-rich layer called pellicle.
  • Slime Moulds: These are saprophytic. The body moves along putrefying leaves and twigs and nourishes itself on organic material. Under favourable surroundings, they form an accumulation and were called Plasmodial slime moulds.
  • Protozoans: They are heterotrophs and survive either as parasites or predators.

Kingdom Fungi

This classification growths incorporate molds, mushroom, yeast and so forth. They show an assortment of uses in local just as business purposes.

Characters of Kingdom Fungi

  • The growths are filamentous, barring yeast (single-celled).
  • Their figure contains thin, long string like developments called hyphae.
  • The trap of hyphae is called mycelium. Some of the hyphae are solid cylinders which are jam-stuffed with multinucleated cytoplasm. Such hyphae are marked Coenocytic hyphae.        
  • The other kind of hyphae has cross-dividers or septae.       
  • The cell mass of parasites is made out of polysaccharides and chitin. 
  • Most of the parasites are saprophytes and are heterotrophic.    
  • Some of the parasites additionally get by as symbionts.
  • Some are parasites.
  • A portion of the symbiont growths live in relationship with green growth, similar to lichens.
  • A portion of the symbiont organisms live in relationship with underlying foundations of higher plants, as mycorrhiza.

Kingdom Plantae

Features of Kingdom Plantae

  • The realm Plantae is loaded up with all eukaryotes which have chloroplast.   
  • Most of them are autotrophic in nature, yet some are heterotrophic too.  
  • The Cell divider principally includes cellulose.
  • Plants have two particular stages in their lifecycle.
  • These stages exchange with one another.
  • The diploid saprophytic and the haploid gametophytic stage. The lengths of the diploid and haploid stages fluctuate among unique gatherings of plants. Shift of Generation is the thing that this marvel is called

Kingdom Animalia

Character of Kingdom Animalia

  • All multicellular eukaryotes which are heterotrophs and need cell divider are put aside under this realm.
  • The creatures are legitimately or by implication reliant on food on plants.
  • Their method of sustenance is holozoic. Holozoic nourishment includes ingestion of food and afterward the utilization of an interior depression for processing of food.
  • Many of the creatures are proficient for motion.
  • They duplicate by sexual method of propagation

Frequently Asked Questions(Five Kingdom Classification System)

What is classification?

Classification is the arrangement of plants and animals in taxonomic groups according to the similarities and differences observed.

What is kingdom classification?

Kingdom classification is the highest classification into which the organisms are grouped in the taxonomy. It is ranked above the phylum.

What is the two kingdom classification?

The two kingdom classification was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus. He classified the living organisms on the basis of nutrition and mobility. The living organisms were classified into Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia.

On what basis are the living organisms divided in the 5-kingdom classification?

The living organisms are divided into 5 different kingdoms – Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, and Monera on the basis of their characteristics such as cell structure, mode of nutrition, mode of reproduction and body organization.

What is the basic unit of classification?

Species are the basic unit of classification. The organisms that have the same characteristics and can breed with each other to produce fertile offsprings are known to belong to the same species.

What was the drawback of two-kingdom classification?

In the two-kingdom classification, the plants included photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic species. Fungi, which feed on dead organic matter, were placed under photosynthetic plants. Therefore, there arose a need for another system of classification where the organisms with the same characteristics were clubbed into one kingdom.

What are the different levels of classification?

The organisms are classified according to the following different levels- Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species.

In which kingdom are the prokaryotes classified?

The prokaryotes are classified into kingdom Monera. There are two other kingdoms including prokaryotes- Eubacteria and Archaea.

References:

Image Courtsey:

  • Fig. 5 Kingdom Classification System. Link

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