Relationship of species with physical environment

Relationship of species with physical environment

 

Introduction:

Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their physical and biotic environment. The physical environment can be built (i.e., created by people) or it can be natural (i.e., trees, rivers, etc.). The physical environment includes land, air, water, plants and animals, buildings and other infrastructure, and all of the natural resources that provide our basic needs and opportunities for social and economic development.Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment.

Climatic factor:

It is related to climate such as light, temperature, atmosphere, precipitation (snow, fog, rainfall) and wind. Climatic factors act directly on the growth, survival, reproduction, and movement of individuals

Edaphic factor:

It is related with the soil such as soil texture, soil structure, soil moisture pH of soil depth and ingredients of soil, such as water, minerals, salt, gases, acidity etc.For example, very alkaline soil may be an edaphic factor limiting the variety of plants growing in a region.

Topographic factor:

Arrangement of natural and artificial physical features of Earth i.e. plains, mountain, valleys, water bodies etc.

Every habitat has a different set of environment. Every specie living in that environment should response to these factors in different ways.

Basic requirements:

Every specie whether it is plant or animal show response and required a certain amount of water, light, temperature and salts. Water is essential for plants. According to water requirement plants are categorized in to three classes.

(i) Aquatic  (ii) Mesic (iii) Xeric

 

1) On the basis of water: –

On the basis of water plants are of three types.

Hydrophytes:

The aquatic plants are called hydrophytes. These plants do not face the water shortage condition. They have large leaves with large number of stomata to increase the rate of transpiration. These plants have access water availability.

For example: Water lily.

Mesophytes:

The plants living in moderate water environment is called Mesophytes. These plants have moderate water availability.

For example: Hydra.

Xerophytes:

The plants living in dry Terrestrial environment is called Xerophytes. These plants have minute leaves awesome time they shut shed their lives to reduce the rate of transpiration. These plants have shortage of water.

For example: Cactus.

On the basis of light: –

On the basis of light plants are of two types:

Heliophytes:

Showing adaptation to bright sunlight. They are also called sun-loving plants, are those that require for their optimum growth full exposure to the sun. E.g., Mango

Sciophytes:

Also called shade-loving plants, are those plants that require reduced light intensity.  These plants have larger photosynthetic units than heliophytesSciophytes are also known as photophobous plants and they reach their saturation level in only 20% sunlight.

On the basis of temperature: –

On the basis of temperature plants are of two types:

Microtherm:

It requires less amount of temperature.

Megatherm:

It requires higher amount of temperature.

 

Ecological Amplitude: –

It is range in which a plant flourish in an ecosystem or in a community is called ecological amplitude.

Dependence:
  • Variation in organisms.
  • Ecotype and biotype.
Variation in organisms:

Ecological amplitude is firstly depending upon variation in organisms. The plants or other species live in an area; all are morphologically or physiologically different.

Ecotype and biotype:

Group of organisms which are selected by nature and they adapted themselves to environment is calledecotype. For example: Tall trees. These are not produced artificially.

Biotype:

Group of organisms within ecotype produced by variations caused by gene recombination is called by biotype.

In the biotype those organisms are produced which have the gene variation.

The greater the number of ecotype and biotype in Species, wider is the ecological amplitude.

 

Importance of ecological amplitude: –

 

a) Geographical distribution:

The natural arrangement of various forms of animals and plants are in different regions and localities of Earth. Ecological amplitude regulates the distribution. Different type of animals and plants are present in area and adapted themselves to their physical environment.

b) Phonologicalbehavior:

Occurrence of any phenomenon during any time is called in “phonological behavior”.

For example,some of the plants show flowering in summer season and some of the plants show flowering in winter season.

Zonation:

Appearance of species in different areas is zonation. Different zones are formed in an area, such as tall trees,shrubby  plants vegetation is occur.

Capacity to use resources:

Certain species are more efficient to use resources, such as minerals, water, nutrients etc. then others. This is because of their efficient “phylogicare system” produced under the influence of genetic recombination.

For example: Tall trees absorb more sunlight and their roots are deeply penetrating and absorb more nutrients then other small shrubby plants.

 

Relation of organisms with same species or different species:

Based on inter relationship that exist between the organisms of the same species or different species, this species shows the following characters:

Species:

Group of individual which can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring are known as species.

 

Population:

Group of individuals of same species occupy same place at same time is called population.

Competition:

The individual or organisms of a specie compete for the resources available for them such as water, light, space and mineral salts.

Ammensalism:

It is the type of relationship in which one population inhibit or reduce the other population by producing other harmful Chemicals is called ammensalism.

For example: Algal blooms

Mutualism:

It is the type of relationship in which both organisms get benefit from each other.

For example: Lichen composed of fungi and algae.

Commensalism:

It is the type of relationship in which one organism get benefit and other organisms neither get benefit or nor harm.

For example: Nest on trees .

 

Parasitism:

A relationship in which one of the individual called “parasite” receives benefits at the expense of another organism card “host” is call parasitism.

For example: Species of Cascuta.

 

Predation:

It is an interaction in which one organism called as “Predator” eats the another organism called “prey”.

For example: Lion eating a deer.

Pollination:

The transfer of pollen grains from one plant to another plant is known as pollination/ the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to stigma. A large number of plants depends upon insect or Birds for pollination.

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Arbascular Mycorhizae Part-I

Arbascular Mycorhizae Part-II

Ectomycorhizae Part-II

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