Glycolysis: The 10 Step Process of Glucose Metabolism

Glycolysis The 10 Step Process of Glucose Metabolism

Glycolysis is a vital metabolic pathway present in nearly all living organisms that involves the breakdown of glucose to generate energy as ATP. This ancient evolutionarily conserved process forms the foundation for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and serves as … Read more

Pigments In Plants – Chlorophyll, Carotenoids, and Xanthophylls

Pigments in plants

Pigments in Plants definition : Substances can absorb light of a specific wavelength and produce color. Importance:      Pigments in plants cell’ chloroplasts absorb the light and energize electrons, raising them to a higher energy level. It is the energy used … Read more

Photorespiration – Process with Diagram

Photorespiration is a process of CO2 elimination and O2 absorption in the presenc of light which takes place simultaneously with the photosynthesis. As for the biochemical mechanism, this process differs substantially from photosynthesis as well as from respiration. Photorespiration is … Read more

Nucleotide Structure and Nomenclature


Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are assembled from nucleotides, which consist of three components: a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (pentose), and phosphate. Five-Carbon Sugar Nucleic acids (as well as nucleosides and nucleotides) are classified according to the pentose they contain. If the … Read more

Crassulacean acids metabolism (CAM)

Crassulacean acids metabolism (CAM)

Crassulacean acid metabolism, or CAM, is a photosynthetic process that allows plants to conserve water and survive in arid or semi-arid environments. Plants from the Crassulaceae, Liliaceae, Cactaceae families, and some of the Compositae, Osteraceae species, etc. have adapted to … Read more